The tsunami was also observed across the Pacific. The 1933 tsunami in the same area reached a height of 23.0 m. It remains to be determined what the maximum height of the 2011 has been. The tsunami, which was generated by an earthquake off the coast of Sanriku, Japan, attained a height of 25 meters (80 feet), and instantly swept away all houses and people when it reached land. Pure Appl. This tsunami propagated after an estimated magnitude 7.6 earthquake occurred off the coast of Sanriku, Japan. The villages of Shizukugawa and Utatsu were established on June 1, 1889 with the establishment of the modern municipalities system. The clinic was active in treating patients immediately upon opening. [18] The average height of the tsunami in Minamisanriku was around 45 feet (14 m) above the sea-level, with the highest watermark recorded at 67.3 feet (20.5 m) just southwest of the city center. 3b). Thirty-five minutes after the earthquake, the most devastating tsunami in Japan’s history reached the shore at the same time as high tide. We carried out the field investigation of the height of this tsunami in the Sendai Plain on the basis of the archaeological view and the sedimentologic examination. Close to 200 people were rescued from the roof. Later, the waves of the Tsunami enveloped the entire city as the water of Lake Biwa rose, leaving no trace of the place, except for the castle situated there. An initial team of five doctors from Israel set up a surgery in preparation for a larger team once needs were assessed. Twenty-six thousand people were killed and nine thousand homes destroyed. [3], Minamisanriku has a humid climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) characterized by warm humid summers and cold winters. Only the tallest buildings remained, and roughly half the population was unaccounted for during the days following the disaster;[12][13][14][15] only 9,700 people were confirmed alive and evacuated in the first week. The 1896 Sanriku earthquake was one of the most devastating tsunami earthquakes, which generated an anomalously larger tsunami than expected from its seismic waves. In some places the tsunami’s wave reached a height of 125 feet. We then compared them with the above-mentioned tsunamis at locations for which specific measurements were given in previous reports. She was credited with saving many lives. Matsuo reported tsunami heights from the 1896 and 1933 Sanriku tsunami based on surveys he conducted during March 3–10 and May 19–June 4, 1933, with the support of the Iwate and Miyagi prefectural governments. Issue 4 Dr. George Pararas-Carayannis. [8] As a result, two-story-high harbor walls were built by 1963, and residents held tsunami drills each year on the anniversary. Recent and Current Issues (2005 - 2009) All Past Issues from 1982 - archived by volume, title and names of authors-----MISCELLANEOUS. The 1896 earthquake resulted in the highest tsunami wave ever recorded in Japan at 38.2 metres (125.3 ft), until it was surpassed by a 40.4 metres (132.5 ft) wave at Miyako in the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and … The maximum coastal tsunami height was nearly 40 m at the Sanriku coast [e.g., Mori et al., 2012], and the maximum inundation distance from the coast exceeded 5 km on both the Ishinomaki and Sendai plains [e.g., Nakajima and Koarai, 2011]. [9], The harbor walls proved ineffective in the 2011 tsunami, which washed over four-story buildings. The tsunami heights along the northern and central Sanriku coasts from both earthquakes were similar, but the tsunami waveforms at regional distances in Japan were much larger in 2011. The 1896 tsunami height was reported as 130–180 shaku (approximately 39–55 m; Yamana 1896), 72 feet (22 m; Iki 1897), or 38 m (Matsuo 1933) (Fig. Keywords:tsunami height, “Japan Tsunami Trace database”, historical tsunami, Jogan tsunami, Jogan tsunami, Keicho Oushu (Sanriku) tsunami, Iwate Prefecture Iwate Prefecture is advancing examination for future tsunami hazard based on scientific knowledge such as historical records and tsunami … It is known that great Sanriku tsunamis sometimes hit the Sendai Plain in the north part of the Honshu Island in Japan. The three-story headquarters of the department remained standing but was completely gutted, with only a red-colored steel skeleton remaining. [16] In late June 2011, a total of 1,206 were counted as dead or missing, according to the Kahoku Shinpou. The run-up height reached by the tsunami of 1896 at the former Ryohri Village had been erroneously recognized as high as only 21.9 m. Our study (1983) renewed the figure of 38.2 m (Matsuo, 1933), which is now officially recognized. The 2011 tsunami developed into a series of bores more than two miles off the Sendai … Previous studies indicate that the earthquake occurred beneath the accretionary wedge near the trench axis. The fourth biggest tsunami in recorded world history. Perhaps a few thousand at the school on the hill opposite. To understand its source mechanism, an examination was undertaken of the seismotectonics of the region and of the earthquake’ focal … [23], Shizugawa Hospital was one of the few major buildings that survived the tsunami. Meiji Sanriku Jishin This quake occurred off the coast of Sanriku in Iwate Prefecture, which caused a tsunami of 25 m (82 ft) to strike 35 minutes after the quake, destroying hundreds of houses and killed over 22,000 people. In the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, the maximum run‐up height was 39.7 m at Miyako, which resulted in catastrophic destruction of towns and cities in the ria coast area. The 8.5 magnitude earthquake occurred at 19: 32 local The 1994 o Onagawa (女川) is a small fishing town along the Sanriku Coast known for its bountiful seafood like oysters, scallops, pacific saury and salmon. Tsunami were also observed as far away as Hawaii and in California. Maximum tsunami height of 38,2 m from the 1896 Sanriku tsunami shown on a pole near the border of Okubo and Shirahama, Sanrikucho-Ryori, Ofunato City, Iwate Prefecture.jpg 1,941 × 1,460; 296 KB Minamisoma City - Map of Triple Disaster 2011.png 3,417 × 3,399; 8.9 MB In Hawaii, wharves were demolished and several houses were swept away. An approximately 13-meter high tsunami hit a building at Kesennuma Koyo High School. This height is deemed the record in Japan historically, as of reporting date, that exceeds 38.2 metres (125 ft) from the 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake. The tsunami was reported at Shirahama to have reached a height of 38.2 m, causing damage to more than 11,000 homes and killing some 22,000 people. SANRIKU EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN George Pararas-Carayannis Tsunami Society International, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA drgeorgepc@yahoo.com ABSTRACT The great Tohoku earthquake of March 11, 2011 generated a very destructive and anomalously high tsunami. He returned to government affairs, founding the headquarters for disaster control at the Bayside Arena in Miyagi on March 13, 2011. Keywords: Paleo-tsunami, Sanriku coast, Japan, Tsunami deposit identification, AD 869 Jogan tsunami, Storm wave, Numerical modeling Introduction The Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw=9.0) and tsunami that struck on March 11, 2011, generated severe damage along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. Past tsunami impacts were fairly moderate south of the Otsuchi Peninsula, so the area lacked the extensive defense walls found farther north. 1896, 1933, and 1960 (Fig. [1] The total area of the town is 163.40 square kilometres (63.09 sq mi). It is a resort town on a coastline of wooded islands and mountainous inlets; large sections of which suffered from damage due to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. The coastal town sits at the mouth of Onagawa Bay and was badly affected by the 2011 tsunami, which killed about an eighth of the town's population and destroyed more than half of the town's buildings. - Tsunami by the Sanriku Earthquake in 1896, at Hitachihama, Kuwagasaki - Tsunami by the Sanriku Earthquake in 1933, at Taro Elementary School - Tsunami by the Chilean Earthquake in 1960, at Current National Highway Route No. The often quoted maximum height of 38 m at … [19], According to an English teacher at the high school on a hill above the tsunami, "The entire town was simply swept away. An approximately 13-meter high tsunami hit a building at Kesennuma Koyo High School. To mark the 30th anniversary of the disaster in 1990, a bilingual Spanish-Japanese plaque was installed, with a message from President Patricio Aylwin of Chile, accompanied by a replica moai statue. Its coastline is part of the Sanriku Fukkō National Park, which stretches north to Aomori Prefecture. The former method is based on the archaeologist's judgement whether historic relics have the trace buried by the running water or not. The height of the 1896 tsunami reached 38.2 m, the highest ever in Japan since the tsunami of 1868. From the results of these investigations, the height of the Sanriku Jogan 11 earthquake-tsunami (A. D. 869) is estimated as 2.5-3m at the point 3km from the coastline in the Sendai Plain. The 1960 Chilean tsunami struck the Sanriku coast with a height of several meters approximately 23 h after the earthquake (e.g., Committee for Field Investigation of the Chilean Tsunami of 1960, 1961), resulting in 123 casualties in the Tohoku region. The clinic included surgical, pediatrics and maternity wards, and an intensive care unit, pharmacy and laboratory along with 62 tons of medical supplies. Japanese tsunami stood at 132.5ft . TSUNAMI SOCIETY. The 2011 Japan tsunami current velocity measurements from survivor videos at Kesennuma Bay using LiDAR Hermann M. Fritz,1 David A. Phillips,2 Akio Okayasu,3 Takenori Shimozono,3 Haijiang Liu,4 Fahad Mohammed,1 Vassilis Skanavis,5 Costas E. Synolakis,5,6 and Tomoyuki Takahashi7 Received 17 December 2011; accepted 20 December 2011; published 21January2012. Japan's massive tsunami on March 11 reached heights of up to 131 feet (40 meters), according to the latest data from Japan's Meteorological Agency. Per Japanese census data,[5] the population of Minamisanriku peaked in the 1950s and has declined steadily over the past 70 years. Geophys. However 35 minutes after the earthquake the most devastating tsunami experienced until then in modern Japan hit the coast, one of the subsequent waves reached a height of over 30-38 meters. Although both were 20 meters above sea level, the tsunami inundated them and washed people away. The height of the wave was described as being several meters. The Memorial Museum was built on the site of that high school to retain the state of the damage at that time. The threat of large tsu-namis is of great concern to Japan and other countries (e.g., Goto et al. For three bays situated along the Sanriku Coast, Japan, comparison of the water heights attained by the Chile tsunami of 1960 with those by the Sanriku tsunami of 1933 is made, and a remarkable difference is found between them. The town was formed through a merger on October 1, 2005, when the towns of Shizugawa and Utatsu, both from Motoyoshi District, merged to form the new town of Minamisanriku. The tsunami that struck north-east Japan in March rose to a maximum height of 132.5ft, according to researchers, taller than Rio's Christ the Redeemer. 1). [10], The 2010 Chile earthquake caused a 1.3-metre (4.3 ft) tsunami in Minamisanriku.[11]. Pages 513-525, (compatible with EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite, RefWorks). As of 1 May 2020[update], it had an estimated population of 12,516, and a population density of 77 persons per km² in 4504 households. The tsunami heights from the 1896 Sanriku tsunami were measured 37 years after the event, based on eyewitness accounts. We estimated the inundated area from the result of the survey for the 8 points in the Sendai Plain. [24], Miki Endo, a 25-year-old employed by the town's Crisis Management Department to voice disaster advisories and warnings, was hailed in the Japanese news media as a heroine for sacrificing her life by continuing to broadcast warnings and alerts over the community loudspeaker system, in the Crisis Management Department's building, as the tsunami overwhelmed it. At times the tsunami’s wave reached a height of 125 feet. The death toll came to 1,522 people confirmed dead, … Maximum tsunami height (m) 2011 Tohoku 1960 Chile 1933 Showa 1896 Meiji 1611 Keicho Figure 1 Historical tsunamis in the Sanriku area, the areas that were affected by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, and the maximum tsunami height of historical tsunamis 994 A. Suppasri et al. The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Joint Survey (TTJS) Group reported that tsunami height was 22.84 m near the shoreline at this site and reached up to ~ 720 m inland and 12 m in elevation (http://www.coastal.jp/ttjt/) (Fig. 45, Takahama (Bottom) - Tsunami by the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. which the height of the 2011 tsunami was recorded at 296 points, along with descriptions of the survey method, reliability, and accuracy. Volume 43 The 1960 Valdivia earthquake triggered a tsunami that crossed the Pacific Ocean and struck the town of Shizugawa with a height of up to 2.8 metres (9.2 ft),[7] causing extensive damage. [25] Photos show the roof of the building completely submerged at the height of the inundation, with some people clinging to the rooftop antenna. The area has suffered from the effects of tsunami since ancient times, including the 869 Sanriku earthquake, and more recently during the 1896 Sanriku earthquake and the 1933 Sanriku earthquake. The tsunami was also observed across the Pacific. It was also estimated that the tsunami reached heights of up to 40.5 metres (133 ft) in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture. Given that a building protecting the great Buddha of Kamakura was swept away the tsunami must have been at least 30ft (10m) in height. There were around 7,000 of us on the hill that day. The town is bordered to the north, west, and south by the Kitakami Mountains. The 1896 Sanriku earthquake was one of the most destructive seismic events in Japanese history. Onagawa Nuclear Power Station Construction Office, Tohoku Electric Power Company, 1990 The temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 23.7 °C, and lowest in January, at around -0.2 °C.[4]. In Hawaii, wharves were … From the results of these investigations, the height of the Sanriku Jogan 11 earthquake-tsunami (A. D. 869) is estimated as 2.5-3m at the point 3km from the coastline in the Sendai Plain. The maximum height for the 1896 and the 1833 tsunamis occurred at Ryori Bay in Sanriku, Iwate Prefecture. Tourists can freely tour the school. September 1, 1923: 8.3 M L: 142,800 Context as given in the above cited source: "At Sanrikucho-Ryori in Ofunato City, the 2011 tsunami height was lower than the 1896 and 1933 Sanriku tsunami heights, but higher than the 1960 tsunami. Kesennuma suffered a major tsunami damage in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Huge damage was inflicted by this earthquake and Tsunami which may have claimed as many as 8,000 lives back then. Among those great tsunamis, the field investigation had been rarely carried out about the tsunami of July 13th, 869 (11th year of the Jogan Era) because of the lack of the materials of old documents. 10. Everything in its path was totally devastated. Tourists can freely tour the school. Shizukugawa was elevated to town status on October 31, 1895 and Utatsu on April 1, 1959. The town had two evacuation centers where residents could go in the event of a tsunami, one on the southern headland overlooking the town, the other back from the center of the town. Zisin (Journal of the Seismological Society of Japan), Zisin (Journal of the Seismological Society of Japan. The area of present-day Minamisanriku was part of ancient Mutsu Province and came under the control of the Date clan of Sendai Domain during the Edo period, under the Tokugawa shogunate. Sanriku, Japan – 15 June 1896 Sanriku Great Tsunami. Sanriku, Japan 1896 The Sanriku area extends northward from Sendai, passing through Iwate to Aomori as a saw-toothed coastline more than 600 km in length. It was quite a different story with the 1933 event. [20] Survivors wrote "SOS" in white lettering,[21] in the playing field of Shizugawa High School. [22], When the earthquake struck, the mayor, Jin Sato (佐藤仁), was talking at the town assembly about the much smaller tsunami caused by the March 9 foreshock of the March 11 earthquake. The Memorial Museum was built on the site of that high school to retain the state of the damage at that time. [23] The three-story building of the town's Crisis Management Department (防災対策庁舎, Bōsai Taisaku Chōsha) which Sato escaped to was submerged by the tsunami. [28] A 53-member delegation of medical personnel from the Home Front Command and the IDF's Medical Corps opened a field hospital near Minamisanriku on March 29. Out of the 130 people who worked at the town hall, Sato was one of 53 who reached the roof and one of 10 who survived. About 70% of the area of the town is forested. Everything in its path was totally devastated. Since the schools were all on high ground, many children were orphaned. Minamisanriku relies heavily on tourism and commercial fishing as mainstays of the local economy. Reports have also been found that chronicle a corresponding tsunami hitting the East coast of China, killing around 4000 people and doing extensive damage to local crops. Moreover to analyze the character of the sand layer, we made the physical examination, the chemical analysis and the measurement of the age by 14C method. The third biggest was the 2004 tsunami triggered by the mega earthquake in Sumatra, Indonesia, which hit Asia. Matsuo ( 1933) made field … The historical records of maximum run‐up are 38.2 m in the 1896 Meiji Sanriku Tsunami and … Immediate aftermath accounts suggested 95 percent of the town was destroyed by the 2011 Japanese tsunami that followed the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake. It just no longer exists. Tsunami height: 24 – 39ft; Fatalities: 1,711; The city of Sendai is nestled between the Ou Mountains and a densely populated coastal plain that extends southward to Fukushima Prefecture. In 1933, another devastating tsunami, with maximum height of 29 m and approximately 3000 fatalities, was caused by the 1933 Sanriku earthquake ( M s 8.5). In the latter method, we dipped the test pit and observed the soil layer of the side wall minutely to find the sand layer being supposed to be carried by the tsunami from the dune. From the results, the height (mean sea level, MSL) of the tsunami was 10.8 m in front of the blocks and 2.6 m behind the blocks; therefore, the blocks … The tsunami was also recorded in Hawaii with a height of 9.5 feet (2.9 m), and also resulted in slight damage. Background of tsunamis in the Sanriku coast and Sendai plain Japan is well known for having the world’s best tsunami countermeasures and evacuation mechanism because of its long history of tsunamis, especially along the Sanriku coast. The area has suffered from the effects of tsunami since ancient times, including the 869 Sanriku earthquake, and more recently during the 1896 Sanriku earthquake and the 1933 Sanriku earthquake. All the others have gone." [2], Minamisanriku is in the far northeastern corner of Miyagi Prefecture. The H for the 1999 Vanuatu earthquake recorded at two coastal tide gauges, Moroto‐misaki (0.15 m) and Tosashimizu (0.14 m) (Figure 1), are approximately twice as … Finally we checked it with the social and geographic circumstances at that time, and we got the result that the estimated height is not inconsistent with the record of this tsunami. It was partly inundated, and 74 out of 109 patients died. The tsunami was reported at Shirahama to have reached a height of 38.2 m, causing damage to more than 11,000 homes and killing some 22,000 people. Its epicenter on a reverse fault near the Japan Trench was the reason for the mild impact felt on shore. 4. But there are 17,000 in the town. In the aftermath of the disaster, Endo was missing and was later confirmed to have died. [29][30], On 23 April 2011, the Prime Minister of Australia, Julia Gillard, visited Minamisanriku.[31]. Characteristics of Sanriku tsunamis. The 1896 earthquake resulted in the highest tsunami wave ever recorded in Japan at 38.2 metres (125.3 ft), until it was surpassed by a 40.4 metres (132.5 ft) wave at Miyako in the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.[6]. [26][27], The town is the site of the first field hospital established by an outside nation offering assistance following the disaster. The earthquake lasted for five minutes and was accompanied by a slow shaking. East Japan Railway Company (JR East) - Kesennuma Line (Suspended indefinitely and replace by a BRT service), Location of Minamisanriku in Miyagi Prefecture, "Shizugawa Hospital, Minamisanriku-cho, Miyagi", "9,500 still unaccounted in Minamisanriku of Japan's Miyagi Prefecture: Kyodo", "Rescuers scramble to save lives as aftershocks jolt Japan", 9,500 People Reported Missing in Small Town Following Japan Quake, Natures fury leaves a silt-covered graveyard, Tsunami hit more than 100 designated evacuation sites, "Detailed Analysis of the 2011 Japan Tsunami – Video Footage, Wave Heights and Damage Imagery", Minamisanriku: Japan's tsunami-hit ground zero, "Japan tsunami: Minamisanriku, a fishing port that vanished", "Minami Sanriku - the town that disappeared in the Japan earthquake", "Miki Endo, missing heroine of Minamisanriku", "Israel first to set up field hospital in Japan", "IDF field hospital officially open doors to Japanese", "IDF medical delegation to Japan treats homeless baby", "Gillard tours tsunami-devastated Minami Sanriku", Nuclear power in Japan, section Seismicity, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Minamisanriku&oldid=998263987, Articles with Japanese-language sources (ja), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing potentially dated statements from May 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 77 Shioiri, Shizugawa, Minamisanriku-cho, Motoyoshi-gun Miyagi-ken 986-0792, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 15:41. 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