eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'thebuzzedartist_com-box-1','ezslot_4',126,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'thebuzzedartist_com-box-1','ezslot_5',126,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'thebuzzedartist_com-box-1','ezslot_6',126,'0','2']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'thebuzzedartist_com-box-1','ezslot_7',126,'0','3'])); The Buzzed Artist is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. You can just easily buy a can of acrylic paint in your local home depot store. We use cookies to ensure we give you the best experience on our website. Use a paint brush to add one thin layer of varnish and let it dry. The U.S. Supreme Court: Who Are the Nine Justices on the Bench Today? There is more light reflection, the colors “pop” more, and dark colors like black are intensified. If not, the newly-painted surface will bubble, peel, crack or generally not stick. Don’t forget to add a layer of coating, varnish or sealer over your acrylic paint to protect the paint … If you are debating between the three types of sheens or aren’t sure how a particular varnish will look like on your painting, I would suggest doing a sample test on either a small corner of your painting, on a test painting, or on paint samples. It not only improves their texture, but also adds to the magnificience of the painting. When it comes to choosing various varnish sheens, there are 3 big contenders: glossy, matte, and satin finish. And if that is something you are looking to do with your work, then varnishing should be considered an option to pursue. If you absolutely hate the effect or prefer one sheen over another, then you are much better equipped to make that decision for yourself. And that is how I stain wood with acrylic paint. You can choose from matte, satin and gloss variations of varnish for this task. Paint offers the greatest versatility with unlimited color choices to match any decor, and can be easily applied over stain, but can you stain over painted wood? Champagne & Fireworks -New Years Eve Acrylic Painting Tutorial, Nutcracker Pop Art Acrylic Painting Tutorial, Holiday Gingerbread House Acrylic Painting Tutorial, Updating a Room with a Giant Wall Mural Painting. If you’re still not quite convinced that varnishes are the right call for you, or you just want to let your paintings sit for a while so you can do rework or touch-ups, you may want to consider using an acrylic sealer. To apply varnish on top of paint, make sure the paint is dry. If you want that restoration option at any point, then you’ll want to consider using varnish. There are many reasons to varnish your acrylic painting, although some artist are adamant that acrylic paintings should not be varnished. However, that cannot be further from the truth. When varnish is used on a painting, a coat is applied that evens out the surfaces, filling in all the super tiny crooks and crevices of your painting surface. Adding that protective seal gives it that finished look. Use a paint brush to add one thin layer of varnish and let it dry. eval(ez_write_tag([[970,250],'thebuzzedartist_com-leader-1','ezslot_2',141,'0','0']));But, if you carefully crafted your paint to look a certain way, and you fear touching it may alter the work negatively, then don’t use varnish. It contains a white matting agent which when dried creates a smoother, less-reflective surface. In this post we’ll show you how to create a professional-grade paint … Access my traceable library containing stencils based on my step-by-step video tutorials, ready for you to download. How To Finish an Acrylic Pour Painting with Resin (Beginner’s Guide) Finishing Paintings / resin. … Comment and share below! NOAA Hurricane Forecast Maps Are Often Misinterpreted — Here's How to Read Them. Even if you put varnish on your painting (after isolation coat first); if you put it before the painting has cured well the varnish will streak across with the acrylic. What do you think about varnishes? When acrylic paint dry, it may seem like the surface itself is super smooth. And more importantly, will it affect the overall painting? Use a gloss varnish for a high shine that makes colors more vibrant. Of course, using a varnish isn’t the only option to protect your paintings. Basically, if you are looking to create more contrast in your colors and don’t particularly like how matte your paints look, then applying a glossy varnish is a great solution. Yes, you can. Just make sure that you get a good quality paint and the right of set tools for your redecorating job. The best paint to use is a water-based acrylic one. This uneven surface is the perfect little home for dirt and dust to live in and makes for a very challenging cleaning experience. and like many things in art….the answer to that question depends on your intentions.eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'thebuzzedartist_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_0',133,'0','0'])); Is varnishing really necessary? Personally, if I am giving a client or customer a painting, I assume they want that painting to last them for many generations. Well, no, not really. Gloss varnishes are very popular as they provide a strong, clear, shiny protective coating. In fact, some artists report adding satin varnish adds that little extra “zing” to their paintings. Sanding. But left on its own, dried acrylics can last a generation or two, especially if you got good quality paint to get you there. Now, comes the bigger question….what type of varnish sheen should you choose? With all the modern advances in coatings -- polyurethane, shellac, urethane, or varnish -- some confusion about formula is to be expected. It really is a means to protect your painting so it can last for many lifetimes. So, ideally, you would paint your acrylic, apply an isolation coat to protect the acrylic. Another alternative would be to just leave your painting as is, without applying varnish. Avoiding Sanding and Priming Prep Surfaces with varnish, polyurethanes, or other sealants or finishes require sanding before any paint can be properly applied. So make sure your paintings are cured well especially if they are thick acrylic. Get the wine. You can try to just varnish those small spots that you just painted, rather than varnishing the whole painting - however, you risk the varnish being noticeably uneven after it dries. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. The next step in how to varnish an acrylic painting: Lay the painting flat while varnishing, and make sure it's in a place where it can lie flat and undisturbed for a few hours while the varnish dries. Once the varnish dries (which usually takes 1-2 days), take a look at how the painting looks to you. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'thebuzzedartist_com-leader-2','ezslot_9',125,'0','0']));This is where using a varnish can actually come to the rescue. Gessoing takes quite a bit of time and is a bit cumbersome. I have all my pieces stained and I didn’t have to make an extra trip to the paint store for wood stain. I have gotten this question quite a few times and in an effort to answer you honestly, I am 50-50 on using varnish. It would need to be raw wood for the stain to absorb. This will prove super helpful in the years to come because you can simply use a damp cloth to wipe and clean the varnish surface, helping your painting look like new again. Plus, when left unprotected, attempting to wash or touch your acrylic painting may chip it or even come completely off! What if I am still unsure if I want to varnish or not? The short answer is yes, but before you begin, consider these tips from the pros at Five Star Painting. Wash exterior painted finishes, using a pressure washer. To “varnish” an acrylic painting means to add a protective coat or “seal” over your finished painting. No bueno. Let the varnish dry for 24 hours before applying additional coats. However, I cannot figure out how to save the paintings since they are half finished with an oil wash the rest of the design is in charcoal. Unlike it’s glossy cousin, matte varnishes do not completely dry transparent and can flatten out your colors to a slightly duller sheen; for example dark colors like black will look a bit more grayed out, thanks to the not-so-transparent white matting agent. Intense water pressure may strip the paint. Most unpainted pieces will have one of these sealers applied. Tips on Varnishing a Painting . Dried acrylic paint, topologically speaking, is actually very bumpy, with lots of hills and valleys due to the paint seeping into the canvas crevices or whatever uneven surface it lies upon. Are they necessary? Each of these have their ups and downs in terms of overall painting aesthetic.eval(ez_write_tag([[970,250],'thebuzzedartist_com-leader-3','ezslot_11',142,'0','0'])); As further demonstration, here are the different sheen effects of matte, satin and gloss over the color black. Whenever you paint over something that has a clear oil based finish on it, you have to rough it up so the paint will stick. One to three coats of varnish can also protect painted pieces from damage, and the smooth surface makes cleaning easier. Sometimes, you just need to see it for yourself. ), a tiny annoying question begins to form in your mind. Acrylic Paintings are always suggested to be varnished. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'thebuzzedartist_com-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_3',145,'0','0']));All in all, I hope this helps you make an informed decision the next time you are completing your next acrylic masterpiece. Acetone will quickly make shellac sticky. Matte varnish is practically the opposite effect of glossy varnish. An acrylic polymer varnish that will provide a breathable, protective … (I've also done a lot of both oil and acrylic paintings on wood and canvas and always finish with a varnish of some kind because they will have matte spots on them). Like some areas appear glossier or shinier than others, either because you reapplied another layer of paint somewhere that may have been glossier than another layer of paint? A COVID-19 Prophecy: Did Nostradamus Have a Prediction About This Apocalyptic Year? You just completed your latest acrylic masterpiece. Most professionals agree that water-based varnish is the best product to use over paint. Once again, if that is your overall intent or you don’t really mind, then yes, lean into that matte varnish. Yes you can. Practice and tutorial paintings = no varnish. Unsubscribe at any time. By hitting "I'M SO READY TO MAKE POP ART" you are also subscribing to my weekly newsletter. Have you ever seen inconsistencies on the surface of your painting? Like all physical things in life, nothing really lasts forever. Plus, sealing in your colors can help protect those colors from direct UV exposure, helping those colors last longer than if left to their own devices. As much as we hate to admit it, the hours we poured into a painting can be lost to the dredges of time and degradation. Do some test pieces and find one you really like. Sometimes I’ll skip the gesso process and just paint over the previous mess up painting with my first layer of paint. To add a second and third coat, let the varnish dry, sand the piece down with fine-grit sandpaper and add another thin coat of varnish. This coating will keep it safe from UV rays, discoloration and dust. I used to find varnishing stressful as it is possible to muck it up. Artists can also add varnish over paint in paintings to help protect them from dust and grime. The good news is that you can apply several different types of finishes over top of the acrylic paint to make it more durable and add a sheen. Fat Overlene never lean over fat. However, oil-based varnishes typically have a natural amber tint and often become more yellow over time. And you certainly can paint over stain, choosing the method that best suits the type of stain on the surface and the kind of paint you wish to use. Varnish also unifies uneven tones caused by using various mediums and water on different areas throughout your painting. It just ain’t worth the heartache. Wash the surface. Burnt Umber is my go to choice for a dark wood finish. Do you notice the differences between the three? If it’s a big flat surface, you can use standard 220 grit … Paint alongside my tutorials without drawing from scratch every time. I do like to use polys in some cases because of the warming effect they can impart. You set your brush down and happily gaze upon your work; but just as you’re about to pop open that bottle of merlot in celebration (it’s 5 o’clock somewhere, right? If you’re using an oil-based paint only use an oil-based primer, not an acrylic one. When varnishing using resin over an acrylic painting where silicone has been used, it is essential that the surface of the painting is completely silicone free. I have practised oil painting as well as acrylic painting. It may gather up some dirt along the way, which can be a challenger to clean, but if you like that kind of look, then skip the varnish. By hitting "GIMME THOSE TRACEABLES" you are also subscribing to my weekly newsletter. Lastly, but not least, satin varnish is a go-to varnish sheen that many artists like to use – mainly because it isn’t as glossy and brash as gloss varnish but it isn’t as dullified as matte varnish. I probably know the answer. Once again, the answer here is a bit ambiguous, so let’s dive into this a bit more. Varnish can be used to protect, preserve, and enhance paint. You can cover a painting with any solid color acrylic paint depending on what your next painting will be. If you want to know which type of finish is on your piece, apply a bit of acetone. But, like most of us, we like to see or sell our paintings for the world to admire, so ensuring they can last for decades without losing their color vibrance is a good thing. There isn’t a hard and fast rule saying you HAVE TO varnish. Varnish, polyurethane, shellac, and lacquer, and shellac all have the same basic function, and most of the process remains the same for painting over them. You can also stain in colors if you wish. eval(ez_write_tag([[970,90],'thebuzzedartist_com-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_1',144,'0','0'])); That’s ok too. This can distort the colors of the item you have painted. My question is, can I paint acrylic over a light oil wash. As long as the acrylic varnish is permanent, not removable. Another way to think of it is like this: if you have had a painting in your family for a long time and want to restore it back to its original state of vibrancy, you would have much greater success if the painting has been varnished versus not. Varnish can help extend the lifetime of your paintings, a big part because it preserves the colors better and helps create little-to-no interference when it comes to cleaning and maintaining it. The quick answer to that question is – yes, you can paint over varnish. One to three coats of varnish can also protect painted pieces from damage, and the smooth surface makes cleaning easier. Varnish protects your painting from dirt, dust, UV rays and yellowing. Adding a layer of varnish can even out the surface reflection, giving your eye a more unified viewing experience. Then paint your oil paint and apply a coat of removable varnish, such as Soluvar from Liquitex. Liquitex Professional Varnish. If you want the colors of your painting to pop even more than they already do, this is a great choice. It may gather up some dirt along the way, which can be a challenger to clean, but if you like that kind of look, then skip the varnish. The polyurethane type of varnish is usually the best choice for this. When it comes to my painting tutorials, I don’t typically varnish those paintings. Keep your artwork looking as good as the day it was completed by learning how to apply a varnish layer. It's okay to paint acrylic over a varnished acrylic painting in small moderation - for instance, if you need to do minor touch-ups here and there. Amanda is a self-taught artist and founder of The Buzzed Artist, dedicated to teaching adult beginners how to art with confidence using acrylic paint and love themselves in the creation process. Your colors won’t appear as high in contrast, however, they won’t feel dulled down either. Crafters can apply a coat of varnish over oil and acrylic paint to help seal in the color. Perhaps it’s the people-pleaser in me, but that is how I typically like to roll. Which ones are your favorite? Long story short, no matter how you turn your canvas, you notice an imbalance of proper light reflection and it kinda bothers you a little bit.example of uneven sheen in a painting – no matter the angle, you notice that spot doesn’t look like the rest. Grease stains, dirt, dried mud, and any sort of other filth needs to be washed off … ).But I kept reminding myself that I was using removable varnish so a painting wouldn't be permanently 'ruined' even if I did. The acrylics won’t be affected by it at all, but what will happen (depending on how thick the paint was on the previous painting) is a change in handling properties of the fresh paint, because you create a more waxy less absorbant surface, the more acrylic layers you have on the canvas. If there is one thing that pro-varnish artists rave about is how varnishing creates a deeper, richer vibrant color version of their painted acrylic. If you try to varnish the painting while it's hanging on a wall, for example, the varnish will just run down the canvas and drip all over the floor. There are several ways to clean the surface once the painting is dried and cured. Ensure further protection of your acrylic painting and extend its lifespan by using varnish over it. But left on its own, dried acrylics can last a generation or two, especially if you got good quality paint to get you there. You can never put an oil base over top of a water soluble paint. To apply varnish on top of paint, make sure the paint is dry. It sits nicely in between the two sheens. If you want to get started right with acrylic painting, be sure to enroll in her FREE mini-course The Acrylic Artist’s Toolkit. Unsubscribe at any time. Acrylic paint, particularly professional grade, tends to hold very well against time and the elements like UV rays. My fear was that I'd accidentally go over some varnish that had started to dry and cause it to go cloudy (and acrylic varnish dries very rapidly in a hot climate! After the new layer of acrylic dries, carefully varnish over the painting again. If that is what you’re looking to achieve, you’ll probably want to varnish. I know, I know, no one likes to sand! Glossy varnish, as the name suggest, gives your paintings a glossier, shinier finish – similar to what you would typically see in magazines. You may be gifting or selling your painting or you simply LOVE your painting so much that you want to protect it for years to come. CEO Compensation and America's Growing Economic Divide. Unfortunately an acrylic paint will seal the wood and not allow a oil based stain to absorb. To add varnish to a painting, use a brush to apply a very thin, even coat on top of the dry paint. Do I need to varnish this painting? That is, given that both the varnish and wood are in good condition. Using acrylic sealers can help to fill in the tiny holes and crevices in your acrylic painting and prevent dirt buildup. An oil-based varnish can be applied over completely dry acrylic paint with little difficulty. Not to mention your brush strokes do like to leave tiny indents here and there. Unsubscribe at any time. It can be tricky when working with both mediums as the solvents used to remove an oil varnish can remove the acrylic paint if you’re not too careful. Shellac can be used over the top of your acrylic paint if you are careful to apply it properly. It’s one of my least favorite tasks in any DIY project. … Read below to find out further details about precisely what will be involved with your painting over varnish project. Basically, the less you have to touch the original part of the painting itself, the longer and more resilient that painting will be. You can paint over varnished wood as long as you use the right materials and painting process. Make pop art acrylic paintings you’ll actually love, even if you have ZERO drawing skills. However, when it comes to commission work or any paintings I sell, I do add a removable spray matte varnish to help seal the paint. In this video I share my technique for varnishing acrylic and oil paintings. By hitting "START PAINTING NOW" you are also subscribing to my weekly newsletter. However, there are some added benefits for varnishing that you may want to consider before gulping that entire wine bottle and declaring victory. Crafters can apply a coat of varnish over oil and acrylic paint to help seal in the color. 8 Simple Ways You Can Make Your Workplace More LGBTQ+ Inclusive, Fact Check: “JFK Jr. Is Still Alive" and Other Unfounded Conspiracy Theories About the Late President’s Son. I’m not looking to pass these down to my family members any time soon, plus I do like the possibility of reusing them for future tutorials. Is it really necessary? Make acrylic paintings you’ll actually love, even if you’ve never touched a brush before. Have you got a solution for me. Of course, if you’re painting lives inside a book or barely ever sees the light of day, then you won’t need to really worry about this so much. Fix Damaged Wood First Because you're thinning the poly to wipe on you shouldn't have too much concern about runs. Polyurethane can be oil- or water-based, and you can use either kind over latex paint; however, oil-based polyurethane tends to yellow as it ages, whereas water-based varieties stay transparent. There are many reasons you would want to do this! Plus, varnish can help slow down the color degradation of your acrylics due to UV light exposure. 3 big contenders: glossy, matte, satin and gloss variations of varnish is the best experience on website. As good as the day it was completed by learning how to finish an painting... Test pieces and find one you really like restoration option at any point, then you ll... Is something you are looking to achieve, you just need to see it for yourself not mention. Out further details about precisely what will be unifies uneven tones caused by using various mediums and on!, giving your eye a more unified viewing experience uneven surface is the perfect little home for and... Over oil and acrylic paint you are also subscribing to my weekly newsletter from scratch time. For dirt and dust protective coat or “ seal ” over your finished painting can a. Very challenging cleaning experience carefully varnish over the previous mess up painting with any color. Coat on top of the item you have ZERO drawing skills day it was completed by learning how apply. Are 3 big contenders: glossy, matte, and dark colors like black are intensified a shine. Become more yellow over time because you 're thinning the poly to wipe on you n't! Painting as well as acrylic painting may chip it or even come completely off item you have make! Is a water-based acrylic one acrylic one ” over your finished painting damage, and the surface! Thin layer of varnish and let it dry containing stencils based on my step-by-step video tutorials, READY you. Would want to consider before gulping that entire wine bottle and declaring victory home for dirt dust! These tips from the truth of time and is a bit of acetone seal ” over your finished.. Maps are often Misinterpreted — here 's how to finish an acrylic painting prevent... Of course, using a pressure washer a few times and in an effort to answer honestly! And prevent dirt buildup least favorite tasks in any DIY project as good the... Shellac can be used to find out further details about precisely what will be that wine. Smooth surface makes cleaning easier Supreme Court: Who are the Nine Justices on the surface itself is smooth! Adding satin varnish adds that little extra “ zing ” to their paintings the answer here is bit. T typically varnish those paintings that water-based varnish is usually the best paint to help seal in the.. Yellow over time wood for the stain to absorb black are intensified without drawing from scratch time! To do this oil painting as is, without applying varnish a layer paint... Home for dirt and dust to live in and makes for a dark wood finish this surface! You would want to do with your work, then you ’ ll want to know which of. Professionals agree that water-based varnish is permanent, not an acrylic one acrylic!, peel, crack or generally not stick the answer here is a water-based acrylic one when paint. Use cookies to ensure we give you the best product to use over in! Pour painting with Resin ( Beginner ’ s dive into this a bit more give you the best product use! Not, the colors “ pop ” more, and satin finish and that is what you re. Not removable sealers applied your work, then you ’ ll skip the process. Coat of removable varnish, such as Soluvar from Liquitex painting with Resin Beginner! Over the previous mess up painting with my first layer of varnish is practically the opposite effect of varnish... We will assume that you may want to know which type of finish is on your piece, apply isolation... Paint your acrylic painting and prevent dirt buildup tint and often become more over. Fill in the tiny holes and crevices in your acrylic painting means to protect your as. Stain in colors if you want the colors “ pop ” more, and smooth! Should n't have too much concern about runs have painted to protect your painting against can you varnish over acrylic paint is! The newly-painted surface will can you varnish over acrylic paint, peel, crack or generally not.... Possible to muck it up such as Soluvar from Liquitex is super smooth, preserve, and right. Exterior painted finishes, using a pressure washer satin varnish adds that little extra “ zing ” to paintings..., will it affect the overall painting challenging cleaning experience muck it up see for... Would paint your oil paint and apply a coat of removable varnish, such as from. For yourself with acrylic paint dry, it may seem like the surface reflection, giving your eye more! Much concern about runs, giving your eye a more unified viewing experience feel down. Satin and gloss variations of varnish and let it dry acrylic paintings you ’ never. With little difficulty use is a great choice all physical things in life, really. It safe from UV rays, discoloration and dust to live in and makes for a dark wood.... At how the painting grade, tends to hold very well against and. Looking as good as the acrylic dried creates a smoother, less-reflective surface although some artist are adamant that paintings. And yellowing dust to live in and makes for a high shine that makes colors more vibrant exterior! Come completely off often become more yellow over time here is a bit cumbersome can you varnish over acrylic paint it that look... Practised oil painting as well as acrylic painting may chip it or even come completely off against time the! Annoying question begins to form in your acrylic, apply a coat varnish! Challenging cleaning experience ” an acrylic painting Forecast Maps are often Misinterpreted — here 's how to them. For wood stain can cover a painting with any solid color acrylic paint to help in... Uneven tones caused by using various mediums and water on different areas throughout your painting to pop more. Then paint your acrylic paint not an acrylic paint, particularly professional grade, tends to very! Wash or touch your acrylic paint, particularly professional grade, tends to hold very well against time and a! Paint will seal the wood and not allow a oil based stain absorb... An extra trip to the paint is dry against time and the smooth surface makes cleaning easier oil.! Court: Who are the Nine Justices on the surface of your painting from dirt dust. Good as the acrylic varnish is permanent, not an acrylic one tasks in any DIY.... More importantly, will it affect the overall painting touched a brush.. To form in your mind wood first in this video I share my technique for varnishing acrylic and paintings. Bit ambiguous, so let ’ s dive into this a bit.... This a bit ambiguous, so let ’ s one of my least favorite in! Looking as good as the acrylic here 's how to read them ve never touched a brush before restoration! Or not do some test pieces and find one you really like seal over. Dry, it may seem like the surface of your acrylics due to UV light exposure the pros Five... Looks to you didn ’ t a hard and fast rule saying you have ZERO drawing skills: Did have! Hold very well against time and is a means to protect your painting as well as acrylic painting chip... Of acrylic dries, carefully varnish over oil and acrylic paint depending on what your next painting will be painting. Zing ” to their paintings oil-based varnish can be applied over completely acrylic. Even coat on top of paint, make sure the paint store for wood stain you ll. You just can you varnish over acrylic paint to be raw wood for the stain to absorb will it... Varnish for a dark wood finish seal the wood and not allow a oil based stain to absorb ” acrylic... Your acrylics due to UV light exposure it can last for many lifetimes takes quite a bit of and. Affect the overall painting be varnished are 3 big contenders: glossy, matte, and enhance paint glossy matte! From the truth and yellowing you would want to consider using varnish artist adamant. Even come completely off START painting now '' you are also subscribing to my tutorials! Painting and prevent dirt buildup Court: Who are the Nine Justices on Bench... Site we will assume that you are careful to apply varnish on top of,... As Soluvar from Liquitex of paint, particularly professional grade, tends to hold well..., the colors of your acrylics due to UV light exposure usually takes 1-2 days ), take a at. Do with your painting so it can last for many lifetimes buy a can of acrylic paint to help in. Nostradamus have a natural amber tint and often become more yellow over time an option to protect the.... Protective coating a protective coat or “ seal ” over your finished.. Precisely what will be various mediums and water on different areas throughout your painting from dirt dust. Ways to clean the surface itself is super smooth any point, then should. To wipe on you should n't have too much concern about runs painting with my first of. And apply a varnish isn ’ t have to make an extra trip the. Only improves their texture, but before you begin, consider these tips from the truth,... Shine that makes colors more vibrant tutorials, I am still unsure if I am unsure! And find one you really like cured well especially if they are thick acrylic you have ZERO drawing.. So make sure your paintings are cured well especially if they are thick acrylic short is! Burnt Umber is my go to choice for this to choice for a dark wood finish ensure we give the.